Today my native city – Brussels – was victim of horrific terrorist attacks. People on social media quickly showed their solidarity by using the Belgian flag (black – yellow – red). Less used – because far less known – was the flag of the Brussels-Capital Region: a yellow flag flower (Iris pseudacorus L.) on a blue background. It seems to me that flag is a perfect response to terrorist attacks: a symbol of spring to counteract acts of barbarity.
As readers of this blog know, I have a slight obsession for irises. My mother recently asked me whether this obsession had anything to do with the Brussels flag. Perhaps it does, although I do prefer species of blue or white irises (grouped under the common name ‘iris’) to the yellow flag. Both plants had a very important role to play in ancient medicine. Indeed, they are the first two plants listed by Dioscorides, the first-century CE author of Materia Medica, perhaps the most important pharmacological book written in Greek.
Here is what Dioscorides has to say about yellow flag:
The yellow flag (akoron) has leaves that are similar to those of the iris, but narrower, and it has roots that are not dissimilar to those of the iris, except that they are interwoven, and that they do not grow straight but sideways and at the surface [of the ground], and divided into joints, and they are whitish, and pungent to the taste, and not unpleasant to the smell. [Then comes a sentence that is corrupt, but whose meaning is that the best types of yellow flags have certain characteristics]. Such are the flag from Colchis and the one from Galatia which is called asplenon.
The root has a warming power. Its decoction, when drunk, is diuretic; it is suitable in cases of pains in the sides, chest, liver; colic; lesions; spasms; it reduces the spleens. It helps those afflicted by strangury, those bitten by wild animals; and in a sitz-bath, like iris, against gynaecological complaints. The juice of the root cleanses that which casts a shadow over the pupils of the eyes. The root is beneficially mixed with antidotes.
[Dioscorides, Materia Medica 1.2]
Altogether then, yellow flag was a very useful plant: one that could be used for all matters of afflictions, ranging from gynaecological troubles to cases of poisoning. Interestingly, one of the names by which the yellow flag was known was choros aphrodisios, the dance/song of Aphrodite, perhaps alluding to some aphrodisiac property of the plant.
How did the yellow flag become the symbol of Brussels? Wikipedia tells me the flag is an allusion to the marshy origins of Brussels; and recounts the story of an unnamed Duke of Brabant who kept to the shallow parts of the marshes where the flags grew, but let his enemy get bogged down in the deeper parts of the marshes. Who knows?
Whatever the origins of the yellow flag as a symbol for Brussels, it is perfectly appropriate in this time of crisis. An antidote against the bites of wild animals; a song to Aphrodite; a proud flower in marshy lands!